Lemon Water: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

What are the benefits and Negatives of Drinking Lemon Water daily?

 

 

Research suggests that the average female needs 91 oz of water while the average male needs 125oz of water daily,  But it’s so bland. So how do you get it in? What about flavored water or water with something added to it? 

 

The most common fruit placed in water is Lemon, and with good reason. The question is, is it for your betterment or does it cause harm. Well, just like anything, too much of a good thing is too much. Use best Judgement and guidance from multiple providers, including your dentist. 

 

So what is Lemon Water Used For? 

Ayurvedic medicine has long stated that lemon in the water plays a role in detoxification, hydration, weight loss, digestion, improved skin quality, prevention of kidney stones, and it’s a good source of Vitamin-C.  But which of those hold water?

Turmeric powder,Turmeric in Mortar Grinder drugs and ingredient herbs on wooden background

It turns out that most of it is correct. In a study published in 2016, they looked at the benefits of using lemon water with honey in it to decrease lipid profiles. 50 people participated and the results were conclusive. The Fat weight of the person decreased, Triglyceride levels went down and Free Fatty Mass decreased. The questions for the researchers that I have is in part around the fasting and in part around subject numbers. Intermittent fasting is also shown to improve Free Fat Mass and triglycerides, so is it a side effect of just that, or is it actually the lemon in the water? 

 

If i was not convinced that it had to do with the lemon in the water, a 1014 study with 100 participants showed similar results. They added daily walking for 20 minutes as a component of their study though, and took out fasting. 

 

The most conclusive results that I could find were in a 2019 study looking at changes in the gut microbiome and longevity. That study showed that microbial activity of bacteria that help the body break down and digest food was increased by 10% -30% depending on the individual’s microbiome at the start of the study. They showed that the persons had more energy and then they also were looked at over a period of ten years. They tested at younger ages via blood work, mental cognitive tests and agility than same aged peers. 

 

So why do some think it is harmful to drink lemon water? The answers might surprise you. 

Most of the time, we don’t think about washing fruits that we peel, but they can be a significant host for things like e.coli, staph and MRSA. One study of 20 restaurants across the US showed that almost all of the oranges and lemons contained at minimum E. Coli on the skin. You don’t want to stick that in your water (or beer).When it comes to restaurant lemons and oranges, Squeeze them into the drink, but leave the fruit on the plate please. 

 

Lemons are acidic in nature, so they can irritate the skin, gums and cold sores or canker sores. The American Dental association recommends that you stay away from them in those instances. Also, if you have weak tooth enamel or start to notice your teeth feel rough when you run your tongue over them, re-consider your flavor of water. That acidity may also play a role in GERD. While some people get a benefit for their heartburn from lemon water, others can suffer because the pH balance in the stomach is upset by trying to balance out the acidity of the lemons. 

The last thing you may want to consider is about migraines. If you are unsure of your triggers, check citrus fruits specifically when you know you have some down time. Getting a migraine at work because you drink lemon water is not a good plan.

 

That’s all for now, Check back later for more health news!

 

Effects of Lifelong Intake of Leon Polyphenols on aging and intestinal microbiome; Shimizu et al. sci rep. (2019)9;3671
Effects on 8P of Daily Lemon intake and Walking. Y.Kato et al. J. Nutr. Metab. (2014)2014:912684
Does Short Term Lemon Honey Fasting Have Effect on Lipid Profile and Body composition. J. Ayurveda Integ Med (2016)Mar; 7(11-13).

What Role do Genetics Play in Pharmacology?

Ever Had a bad experience with a Prescription?

Ever thought it was an allergic reaction to a medication?

In 2017 I had a significant abdominal surgery that required me to take pain medication, anti-inflammatories, and Antibiotics. The Surgery was supposed to help with a significant abdominal umbilical hernia. It occurred on a Wednesday, and by Monday, I was having a significant reaction to the Pain medication, where my FACE went NUMB. Talk about scary.

Leading up to the surgery, I had taken part in 2 appointments where I discussed previous bad reactions to the pain medication and talked about my concerns. They told me it was a necessary evil in this case so that I could sleep. The Morning of Surgery, After long discussion with the Anesthesiologist, He asked If I had testing done to look at my response to different drugs. At that time, I didn’t even know that was a thing that could be done.

The News media and Medical Media lately has talked a lot about epigenetics, Epigenomics and now, we are starting to hear about pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenetics can be done through DNA testing to specifically look at your genetics and how they might react to specific types of drugs. They can allow for better dosing, Better drug choice, so there is less guess work, And over all better outcomes. Pharmacogenetics can also help in looking at how some people may become addicted and others not to things like Marijuana, which the Prop 64 group in Colorado would have us believe is not possible.

Pharmacogenetics can also let us know when it might be time to change a drug, because the Epigenetics/Epigenomics, or the Environmental Factors that cause the genes to change, may have been affected over long term use of specific drugs. These drugs can be related to addiction treatment, Pain Management, Mental Health Disorders (Bipolar, Schizophrenia, Depression), Autoimmune Logical Drugs including Chemotherapy.

Along the line of Epigenetics/Epigenomics, there is a specific testing that can be done that supports your DNA sections. IT looks at what will optimally support your health and with that information, we can create a supplement that is SPECIFIC to you. Repeating the test about 6 months after initial testing and consuming of those supplements is recommended due to the changes you could potentially make. Then every year.

 

Why would you need a DNA specific supplement? Colorado has one of the highest levels of radiation exposure in the continental US. Specifically, We have a lot of naturally occurring Uranium and Radon. Both of those are known carcinogens. Also, think about how much and what type of sunscreen you apply every year in Colorado while enjoying the outdoor lifestyle you love. Chemical Barriers are more likely to interact with the radiation from the sun to create mutation of cells. It starts at the Skin level, But Quickly spreads to the body as the skin is an organ that ABSORBS things you put on it.

 

If you have questions about how DNA Testing can improve your health, life and longevity, Don’t Hesitate to reach out!

 

References:

*https://dnalife.academy/dna-health/

*Recent developments in genetic/genomic medicine, Rachel H. Horton and Anneke M. Lucassen, Clin Sci (Lond). 2019 Mar 15; 133(5): 697–708.Published online 2019 Mar 5. Prepublished online 2019 Feb 27. doi: 10.1042/CS20180436

*Pharmacogenomics in the treatment of mood disorders: Strategies and Opportunities for personalized psychiatry; Azmeraw T. Amare,1 Klaus Oliver Schubert,1,2 and Bernhard T. Baune1; EPMA J. 2017 Sep; 8(3): 211–227.Published online 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0112-8
*Future Trends in the Pharmacogenomics of Brain Disorders and Dementia: Influence of APOE and CYP2D6 Variants; Ramón Cacabelos,1,2,* Lucía Fernández-Novoa,1,2 Rocío Martínez-Bouza,1,2 Adam McKay,1,2 Juan C. Carril,1,2 Valter Lombardi,1,2 Lola Corzo,1,2 Iván Carrera,1,2 Iván Tellado,1,2 Laura Nebril,1,2 Margarita Alcaraz,1,2 Susana Rodríguez,1,2 Ángela Casas,1,2 Verónica Couceiro,1,2 and Antón Álvarez1,2Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Oct; 3(10): 3040–3100.Published online 2010 Sep 29. doi: 10.3390/ph3103040
*Some observations on the role of environment and genetics in behaviour of wild and domestic forms of Sus scrofa (European wild boars and domestic pigs)S Robert, J Dancosse, A Dallaire – Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1987 – Elsevier

The Rise of Alternative Medicine

Restorative Health: Being More Connected To Our Body and Mind

“While there is evidence to support that the natural environment leads to improvements in health markers, More evidence is needed to show what disease may benefit and why.” Bowler et.al. (2010)1

As a Person living in the 21st century, I am often confused by the significant lack of health I am surrounded by. It seems that people are less connected to the environment and people around them than they are to the devices they have available. We have stopped relying on our true person to person connections and moved to a world where we could go a full day without uttering a word to another human. If you type in a search for the effects of electronic devices on Health, the results are kind of scary. This chapter will focus on Restorative health and how we can get back to the last time our Body Agreed that it could do what we asked of it. Restorative health is very Individualized and takes a commitment from the Person and the Provider. It makes sure that both parties are invested to obtain the best outcomes for all involved.

For the last decade, I have been looking for ways to restore my health back to the way it was pre-kids. The things I am looking for are: Sleep, Workout Recovery, Feeling Comfortable in my Body, Less Seasonal Allergies, Less pain. I sought out the help of a physician in 2012 and was directed through a medical model that wanted to drug away my symptoms and maybe (definitely) cause some other symptoms. It was not the root cause of what was happening, It was a band aid approach. Cover Ups don’t work. They simply push the problem to a higher level while partially masking it. What I discovered was that I had a bunch of food allergies that had come back full force while pregnant that were wreaking havoc on my body. You see, true Health starts from within and from the environment around you.

Inflammation occurs when you take in foods that you have sensitivities and allergies to them. That inflammation starts in the mouth, continues to the esophagus, leads to the stomach and ends in the GUT through to the colon. There is another chapter in this book on the gut and microbiome. I would suggest a careful attention is paid to that chapter as well.

“All disease begins in the Gut” ~Hippocrates


The digestive tract is of utmost importance in our health because it is where 90% of the nutrients we take in each day are absorbed. Think of this area of your body similar to the skin, with a severe bug bite. That bug bite becomes inflamed, itches, swells more, you usually agitate it further and it perpetuates the problem. The same is true of the digestive system. If you have a sunburn, how healthy is your skin at the time when it is tight, dry and peeling? Does it absorb lotion well or just appear dry and irritated a few hours later again? If you are causing inflammation due to food sensitivities and allergies, What does the digestive tract look like and how does it feel? One of the problems we have as a society is if I can’t see it, it must not be real. I can ignore it and it will go away, or I can take something for it. This “Disease Mongering3” is part of the pharmaceutical industry push to sell drugs that should likely not be on the market, but also add to the symptoms you experience because they cover a Health Issue with a Band-Aid.

The Discipline to restore your health has to come from with-in, but I believe must also have support. That support can be a health coach, physician, family member, or trusted friends. The non-coach or physician should be someone willing to truly push you and not damage the relationship. The accountability from them must be true to your desire for health. It works best if they are trying to get back some measure of health as well. The typical start of restoring health happens through doing a series of blood work and allergy testing. The best thing about this is that a lot of allergies now can be tested via hair sample, blood work or mouth scraping and spit collection. The patch testing is still an option, but you can find cheaper, less invasive means through online labs. Once you find the things that are causing you inflammation on a daily basis, we tailor an elimination diet to those sensitivities. The Elimination Diet process is no less than 90 days. If you feel that you have extreme or severe food allergies and sensitivities, it may be recommended for six months. This is so the Digestive tract has a chance to heal. If it is still “sunburned” it can not absorb nutrients. The next step is to look at stool samples and find weaknesses in the microbiome and support them. Hormone testing may also be done to look at imbalances and supplements recommended for support.

With the Elimination diet, we focus a lot on the patterns of sleep. Sleep has been discussed a lot over the last decade as a major player in health. There is research to support the fact that lack of sleep causes your body to become insulin resistant, increasing your chances of diabetes. It can lead to stroke due to increased blood pressure, Adrenal fatigue, Thyroid dysfunction and Weight gain. Sleep is when your body truly restores itself. Most of the repair work done is during the time when you are sleeping. Your body goes through a significant amount of detoxification while sleeping. If you look through the Chinese Medicine Body Clock for organ detoxification, you can see that the detoxification of the liver and then the Gallbladder occur between 11pm and 1 am. Going to bed and sleep at a regular time also decreases the likelihood of insomnia and sleep disorders. There has been evidence to show that stopping device use, television and dimming lights in the areas of the house you will be in 30 minutes prior to bedtime will improve your ability to fall asleep quickly. We typically recommend both food and sleep journals. These journals should include what you ate, whether it was protein, carbohydrate or fruit and veggies; the time that you ate, and how much water you drink. It should also include any activity done in the day and your general feeling at the beginning and ending of each day based on mood and stress level. The sleep journal should include what time you went to bed, if you fell asleep easily; if you woke up what time was it; how you felt in the morning when waking up.

Restoring your health also includes periods of time outside, unconnected from the digital world. A four year longitudinal study in the UK showed that people who had access to green space had lower incidence of disease, particularly cardiovascular and Psychological. We encourage mindfulness during this time in the outside world. We ask for people to focus on how they currently feel, then change to how they want to feel that day or moment. We then ask them to say four positive affirmations on the type of feeling they want to have that day in relationship to work, home, Body Image, and Health overall. For Instance: “I enjoy working with each one of my clients. At home I am working well to encourage positive homework behaviors in my children. I am my perfect self every day and I am gaining control over my back pain each moment.”

Restoring Your health is a process that will likely take 18 months to three years, depending on the amount of damage that has occurred over time. We hope that your journey is fulfilling and guides you to a better place in your life. Schedule a Call with me

 

References:

1A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments D.E. Bowler, LM Buyung-Ali, ™ Knight, AS Pullin. BMC Public Health 10:456 (2010)
2Article by Terry Hartig from the Lancet in 2018 reviewing a four year longitudinal study by R. Mitchell and F. Popham showed that people in England that had better access to Green Space in the day to day lives had less incidence of cardiovascular disease and Psychological disorders.
3Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering.Ray Moynihan, journalist,a Iona Heath, general practitioner,b and David Henry, professor of clinical pharmacologyc BMJ. 2002 Apr 13; 324(7342): 886–891.

8 Tips to Get a Better Night of Sleep

If you are not sure how to get a good night of rest, look no further. To optimize sleep and wake up feeling refreshed, start by tackling some of the following tips.

1. Exercise!
Experimental evidence has suggested that exercise may be associated with better sleep quality. One study that evaluated exercise in patients with insomnia showed that an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise about 3 hours before bed reduce sleep onset latency, total wake time and pre-sleep anxiety, while increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency.
2. Limit use of artificial light during evening hours.
Blue light influences secretion of melatonin, which is a neurotransmitter that makes us sleepy and regulates our circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms regulate nearly all of the body’s processes, from metabolism and immunity to energy, sleep, mood and cognitive function. Unfortunately, computer screens, tablets, televisions and cell phones all emit blue light. Many electronic devices have a “night shift” setting that automatically switches your device to a warmer color at a designated time. Set a curfew on the amount of artificial light exposure to get a better night of quality sleep. Also try to avoid checking your phone in the middle of the night if you wake up. As soon as the blue light from a screen hits the retina in the eye, the effect of melatonin is immediately reversed and actually promotes a state of wakefulness over sleep.
3. Avoid caffeine and alcohol 5 hours before bed.
Caffeine is the most popular drug in the world. While it is very beneficial to improve performance in workouts and keep us alert during the day, caffeine does not replace sleep. After consuming caffeine, its effects can occur within 15 minutes and take up to 5 hours to die down. Considering this timeline, caffeine should not be consumed 5+ hours before bed in order to avoid a restless night.

Consuming alcohol close to bedtime can also increase your heart rate and keep you awake. While alcohol is commonly used to aid a person’s ability to fall asleep, it can interfere with quality of sleep. Alcohol blocks REM sleep, which is the most restorative type of sleep. Alcohol consumption also affects the normal production of neurotransmitters and increases tendencies to wake up in the middle of the night.
4. Calm your mind.
Your body and mind need time to wind down and shift into sleep mode before bed. Incorporate a routine, bedtime ritual away from activities that cause excitement, stress or stimulation, will make it easier to fall or remain asleep. Relaxing activities include meditation, a warm bath, reading, foam rolling, stretching or belly breathing. It is best to take work materials, computers and televisions out of the bedroom to strengthen the association between bed and sleep. Checking email or doing work right before bed can also trigger anxious thoughts and make it difficult to fall asleep.

Practicing breathing and meditation exercises before bed can increase parasympathetic response to relax the entire body and decrease your heart rate. Lie down comfortably with one hand on your stomach and your second hand on your chest. Inhale deeply through your nose for a count of 5 while pushing your belly through your hand on your stomach. Then exhale through your mouth for a count of 10 as if you are blowing out candles very slowly while gentle pressing on your stomach to facilitate air exiting. Repeat this 3 to 10 times.

Essential oils have been proven to promote and induce a calmer state of mind and encourage a more balanced central nervous system, which allows us to more effectively prepare for sleep. Essential oils are broken down organic plant molecules that can be very powerful and aromatic. Natural fragrances such as lavender, chamomile, sandalwood, ylang, valerian, bergamot, and cedarwood are often used in the bedroom to infuse the air with calming molecules, relax our systems and encourage deeper breathing.
5. Tailor your sleeping environment.
Evaluate your bedroom to ensure ideal temperature, sound and light. The bedroom should be in the colder temperatures for optimal sleep. Your bedroom should also be free from any noise or extra light that may disturb your sleep. Using blackout curtains, eye shades, ear plugs, white noise machines, fans or other devices may help reduce distractions in the bedroom.
6. Have sex!

Experiencing an orgasm during sex has a sedative effect due to the rush of endorphins and other hormones towards the same part of your brain that regulates arousal and sleep-wake cycle. Endorphins are hormones that can activate the pleasure center in your brain and drop cortisol levels, which relate to stress. Additionally, dopamine and oxytocin are both released during orgasm, which relaxes the mind and eases anxiety.
7. Create a consistent sleep schedule
Going to bed early may seem obvious but also difficult to enact. Many of us are guilty of bedtime procrastination, or delaying going to because we didn’t accomplish everything on our to-do list. Sticking to the same sleep and wake time, during the week and on the weekends, will subconsciously regulate your body’s internal sleep-wake clock and help you fall asleep better at night. Life will inevitably interfere, but try not to sleep in for more than an hour or two, tops, to stay on track.

If you are currently going to bed at 11 pm, don’t decide that tonight you will go to bed by 9 pm, because it likely won’t happen. Your internal clock resets at a rate of about one hour per day. Generally, when making behavioral changes, aim to take small steps towards the bigger end-goal. Set a reminder and aim to go to bed 15-30 minutes earlier tonight.
8. Find a comfortable sleeping position.
There is no single sleeping position that works for every person. With that being said, your sleeping position impacts your sleep quality and general feeling the following day in various ways and is therefore very relevant in this discussion.

Some people are most comfortable sleeping on their stomachs and have no issues, but it does put the neck, spine and shoulders in poor positions for blood flow, muscle imbalances and nerve tension. Regardless of your ideal sleeping position, try to strive towards keeping the body in neutral alignment to avoid kinks and imbalances. This is especially important when it comes to the neck position. Pillows that are too soft or bulky, as in the photos, will lack support for the neck or overstretch the soft tissue and likely lead to shoulder and neck aches. Aim to use a pillow that will keep your neck in line with the rest of your spine.

Sleeping on the back is typically the most recommended position, as it allows the body to rest in a neutral position. If this position is uncomfortable on your back, try putting a small pillow under both your knees. Sleeping on your back has also been shown to minimize the formation of face wrinkles. This position may be uncomfortable for people (or their partners) because it usually causes a person to snore more than other positions.

Side sleeping may prevent snoring completely. If you are most comfortable sleeping on your back, use a rounded pillow to support the natural curve of the neck and a flatter pillow beneath the head. Also, having a pillow under the knees will support the low back. In all sleeping positions, avoid using a pillow that is too high and takes the neck out of neutral alignment, as this leads to pain and stiffness the following day. If sleeping on your side, use a pillow between the knees and arms to keep the front body open and supported, promoting optimal body alignment. Side sleeping is recommended for those with sleep apnea. Sleeping on the left side is advised for those with heartburn and acid reflux.

Sleeping on the stomach is very hard on the cervical spine and the remainder of the system as the neck must be turned to breathe in this position and the rib cage doesn’t expand in the anterior direction as it should.

Finally, If you have an injury on one side of the body, it is not advised to sleep on that side.

It may seem difficult and overwhelming to follow all these recommendations right off the bat. Start by identifying the factors that are most disruptive to your own sleep and then focus on altering particular behaviors to overcome those factors. Happy sleeping!

If you haven’t already read our last post on the importance of sleep, you can find it here

Article written by Dr. Jessica Khani, PT, DPT, CSCS

The information provided is not medical advice and is not intended to be used in place of seeking advice from a professional.

Sources:
“Sleep Duration as Risk Factor for Diabetes Incidence in a Large US Sample.” Sleep Research Society. Sleep. Dec 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276127/.

“Association Between Sleep Disorders, Obesity, and Exercise: A Review.” Nature and Science of Sleep. Dovepress. March 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3630986/

“How Much Sleep Do We Really Need?” National Sleep Foundation. 2018.

You should be getting at least 7 hours of sleep. Here’s why.

We all know sleep is important, but it is often under-appreciated. Sleep is a low hanging fruit to make progress in almost any goal, no matter what it may be. By tending to our sleep-related needs, we can maximize our productivity throughout the day, enhance immune system function, balance hormones, improve recovery, and overall cultivate a deeper connection with the world around us with the extra boost of energy.

The National Sleep Foundation recommends that adults ages 18-64 years old should sleep 7-9 hours a night. However, every person has a different load of stress and activity in their life. Therefore, an individual’s workload, amount of exercise, underlying sickness, or other stressors influence the amount of sleep required for adequate rest each night.

Regardless of the individual amount of sleep needed per night, if your body learns to function on low levels of energy over the course of a period of insufficient sleep, there will be less energy to facilitate recovery from daily stressors. While caffeine and other stimulants cannot substitute for sleep, but they do help to counteract some of the effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, the body excels in managing acute damage or stress by utilizing our fight or flight system to allow us to meet challenges while performing at a high level. While it is beneficial that our bodies can adapt and function at low energy levels, chronic stress without recovery is temporary and will lead to burnout and decreased function of all bodily systems.

Not getting enough sleep, while still allowing us to function in a seemingly normal manner, impairs motor and cognitive functions. A person who is sleep deprived will typically experience reduced ability to concentrate, memory lapses, loss of energy, fatigue, lethargy, difficulty with complex thought, delayed response to stimuli, and emotional instability.

Furthermore, chronic lack of sleep has been associated with many adverse health conditions, including chronic fatigue, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and even musculoskeletal injury. Studies in which subjects underwent short-term sleep deprivation to examine the immediate effects of a lack of sleep were found to have heightened blood pressure, lowered blood glucose levels and increased inflammation. It follows that long-term persistence of these symptoms could lead to more deep-rooted dysfunction. Sleep disturbances are also highly prevalent in chronic pain patients and have been shown to deteriorate the pain condition. It has been hypothesized that descending pain control may be compromised by disturbed sleep.

Sleep is the number one recovery mechanism from stress and it affects the way we look, feel and perform on a regular basis. We tend to think of sleep as a time when the mind and body shut down, but this isn’t the case. During sleep, the body is in an elevated anabolic state, meaning that repair mechanisms are used throughout the body when we are resting. Sleep is an active process during which important processing, restoration and strengthening occur.

One of the essential roles of sleep is to consolidate memories. Our brain takes in unlimited amounts of information throughout the day. While we sleep, experiences, memories and skills are processed and stored from short-term memory to long-term memory in more efficient and permanent brain regions. This results in higher proficiency and better recollection the next day.

In addition to improved memory of past information, sleep also helps us synthesize new ideas. While you are sleeping, pieces of knowledge can be pulled together from different experiences and parts of the brain to create novel concepts.

A recent study found that when subjects slept abundantly throughout the night, cellular waste byproducts that were accumulated in the interstitial space were removed. This clearance of toxins also allows the brain to function optimally the next day.

An internal biological clock, known as the circadian clock, regulates the timing for sleep in humans. The activity of this clock is coordinated by light input during the day, which promotes wakefulness, and melatonin secretion during the night, which makes us sleepy. Most hormone secretion is controlled by the circadian clock or in response to physical events.

Sleep is one the events that modify the timing of secretion of certain hormones. Hormone imbalances that occur as a result of sleep deficiency increase the prevalence of mood swings and anxiety and predispose the body to weight gain.

While we are resting, our body stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. Lack of sleep stimulates our fight or flight system instead of the parasympathetic system, which has been associated with greater secretion of cortisol, a stress hormone. Elevations of evening cortisol levels in chronic sleep loss are likely to promote the development of insulin resistance, a risk factor for obesity and diabetes. Additionally, the regulation of leptin, a hormone released by the fat cells that signals satiety to the brain and thus suppresses appetite, is markedly dependent on sleep duration. Decreased leptin levels in individuals who lose sleep may lead to feelings of hunger, despite adequate food intake. One study that examined shorter sleep duration found decreased leptin levels to be significantly correlated with increased BMI.

Another hormone that is influenced by sleep is growth hormone. Growth hormone plays a key role in growth, body composition, cell repair and metabolism, with the highest secretion levels occuring at night. It has been hypothesized that nocturnal growth hormone increases are involved in various tissue repair mechanisms throughout the body.

Studies have shown that sleep deprivation also decreases levels of glycogen, which is the body’s principal store of energy used for mental and physical activity. Because the brain does not typically utilize fat for energy, glycogen is the only source of spare energy for brain cells. During the metabolically active wakeful period, glycogen is exhausted. Glycogen supply takes time and reduced activity to restore. Both muscle and liver glycogen levels have been shown to replenish with recovered sleep, providing our brain with the energy to function optimally.

If you are not sure how to get a good night of rest, look no further. To optimize sleep and wake up feeling refreshed, start by tackling some of the following tips in the blog post next week!

Article written by Dr. Jessica Khani, PT, DPT, CSCS

The information provided is not medical advice and is not intended to be used in place of seeking advice from a professional.

Sources:
“Sleep Duration as Risk Factor for Diabetes Incidence in a Large US Sample.” Sleep Research Society. Sleep. Dec 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276127/.

“Association Between Sleep Disorders, Obesity, and Exercise: A Review.” Nature and Science of Sleep. Dovepress. March 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3630986/

“How Much Sleep Do We Really Need?” National Sleep Foundation. 2018